Meningitis is a tender soreness on the layered crust that covers the brain and the spinal cord. Caused by an infection in combination with a virus, bacteria or microorganisms; this disease can often lead to threat life and needs immediate medical treatment. This disease is usually at its peak in summer affecting mainly children and adults in the age group of 30. This dreadful disease is more communicable for children below the age of 5.
Viral Meningitis is caused by viruses such as enteroviruses, type 2 Herpes simplex viruses, the virus known for causing chickenpox and shingles, HIV and also LCMV. Fungal Meningitis has many risk factors which mainly happens due to loss of resistance to diseases. Symptoms of fungal include headaches and fever for few weeks prior to diagnosis.
The parasites causing Meningitis are usually observed in the blood cells; and the non-infectious Meningitis is caused by the spread of cancer, drugs and antibiotics.
Causes of Meningitis
This disease is the resultant of an infection in combination with microorganisms. Caused mainly because of viruses, fungi and bacteria, this can also happen due to protozoa. The non-infectious meningitis has no bacteria detected but is often the ground to virus.
- Stiffness and pain in the neck
- Change of mental status
- Rapid breathing or falling short of breath
- Rashes on skin
- Crying and moaning
Treatment for Meningitis
The disease is life threatening only if not treated on and in time. Noted as having one of the largest morality rates, this disease has to be cured with antibiotics whilst the confirmation tests are done. If in the first stage meningococcal disease is detected, benzylpencillin must be given before admitting in the hospital. If low blood pressure persists, intravenous fluids should be medicated. Meningitis causes a huge number of stern complications mandating regular medical checkups and treatment.
The patient, during the treatment might have to be in the intensive care unit if necessary. If the patient has low level of consciousness, mechanical ventilation is deemed necessary in order to avoid respiratory failure.
Bacterial Meningitis Treatment
This kind of disease is cured through antibiotics and steroids. Treatment for this type should be started as soon as the disease is diagnosed soon before the lumbar puncture and CSF is diagnosed. Although the treatment, medication and prescription depends on the place and population of the area one is living in, it is always to cure the disease as soon as it has been detected. Cephalosporin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, ampicilin are generally recommended. While prescribing the medications, a person’s age is also taken into consideration apart from knowing the person’s medical history. Few steroids such as dexamethasone have shown a gradual increase in the minimization of hearing loss and many other advantages for the brain in adults. This has also helped reduce the infection of HIV and has considerably reduced the death rate.
Viral Meningitis treatment
This type of disease mandates a healing therapy. The treatment for this continues for a longer duration in comparison to the bacterial one. Viruses like the Herpes simplex, varicella zoster work best when in combination with acyclovir, no such guarantee has been provided by the doctors. Acute cases of this disease can be cured at home through fluids, complete bedrest and pain-relievers.
This type of disease is treated through long and high dosages of medications like amphotericin B, flucytosine and other antifungals. An increase in the intracranial pressure is noted in this disease and daily lumbar punctures are recommended for a relief.
Latest update on Meningitis
In recent news updated on a website, the United States of America has reported 16 death cases of Meningitis and shocked 200 other cases as told by the medical experts of a hospital. Earlier reported to be a steady increase in this disease, an investigation is on to find out the sudden rise in the dreadful disease. The FDA officials accuse it to be because of the drugs and antibiotics being given by the pharmacists but nothing has been confirmed yet. This abrupt increase has raised a finger on pharmaceutical manufacturers.
The recent victims of Meningitis are from the states of Tennessee, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Virginia, Ohio and other states of America.